【语法】句子成分 · 主语

主语是句子的主体,是句子所要说明的人或物,表示句子描述的是“谁”或“什么”。

主语通常由名词、代词、数词、动词不定式、动名词、从句等充当,主语一般位于句首

举例:

名词作主语

The sun was just setting.

Professor Lee is a well-known scholar.

The elderly are well taken care of in the village. (名词化的形容词)

代词作主语

I like you.

You look very nice.

He knows.

Nobody can help you except yourself.

数词作主语 

Three will be enough for us.

Five plus five is ten.

动词不定式作主语

To become an actor has always been his dream.

To finish that task in such a short time is impossible for us.

动名词作主语

Smoking is prohibited on the train.

Eating too much is bad for your health.

Playing basketball is one of my hobbies.

从句作主语(主语从句)

What I want is a camp tender.

What he said is not true.

What we shall do next is not yet decided.

That he will come to the discussion is certain.

补充:形式主语

动词不定式、动名词或从句作主语时,常用 it 作形式主语,而把真正的主语放在句末。

举例:

动词不定式作主语 → 采用形式主语

To become an actor has always been his dream.

It has always been his dream to become an actor.

To drive without a license/licence is illegal.

It is illegal to drive without a license/licence.

动名词作主语 → 采用形式主语

Arguing with him is no use.

It is no use arguing with him.

从句作主语 → 采用形式主语

Whether I like it or not does not matter.

It does not matter whether I like it or not.