【语法】句子成分·谓语

本期视频讲解

https://www.bilibili.com/video/BV16v411s7aU


谓语负责陈述主语的动作、状态,例如主语在做什么 / 主语是什么 / 主语呈现什么样子、处于什么状态。例如

Captain America runs very fast.

Captain America wears a helmet.

Captain America has a shield.

Captain America speaks French.

Captain America rides a bike.  

Iron Man is cool.

Spiderman was excited.

The Avengers were hungry.

I am sad to hear the news.

谓语可由此分为动作型谓语状态型谓语

动作型谓语

负责陈述主语的动作,「做什么」,例如

I speak English.

She speaks English.

I went swimming last week.

He takes over from here.

以上四个例句中的谓语又可称为「简单谓语」,即由实义动词 / 短语动词单独构成的谓语。

由助动词 / 情态动词 + 动词(及其变形)构成的谓语可称为「复合谓语」,例如

I am speaking English.

She doesn’t speak English.

I can’t swim.

He will take over from here.

① 什么是「实义动词」?

实义动词即有实际意义的动词,如 walk, talk, eat 等,与系动词、助动词、情态动词相对。

② 亦有说法把实义动词的时态、语态变化归为「简单谓语」,而把系表谓语归为「复合谓语」。

状态型谓语

负责陈述主语的身份、性质、特征、(非动作性)状态,「是什么」,例如

You are amazing.

I am a human being.

She is 7 years old.

It is freezing outside.

It was wonderful.

I feel terrible about it.

You look stunning.

It seems doable.

We remained calm.

He gets excited when it comes to physics.

状态型谓语一般由系动词 + 表语构成,故又称「系表型谓语」